Vitiligo

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Artículo de revisión
Rev Asoc Col Dermatol Volumen 17, Número 2, junio de 2009, pág. 76, 86

Vitiligo

Vitiligo
Autor(es): 
María Cristina Trujillo Correa
maria_crys@hotmail.com
Médica, residente II de Dermatología, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.
Luz Marina Gómez Vargas
Médica dermatóloga, Coordinadora del Servicio de Dermatología, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.
Resumen: 

El vitiligo se define como un trastorno de la pigmentación, adquirido, crónico, caracterizado por máculas blancas, que usualmente aumentan de tamaño con el tiempo y que corresponden a una pérdida de la función de los melanocitos epidérmicos y, en algunas ocasiones, a los del folículo piloso. La prevalencia mundial es de 0,5% a 2% y afecta todas las razas y en igual proporción a hombres y mujeres. Se han propuesto múltiples teorías para explicar la patogénesis de la enfermedad y, entre ellas, han resaltado la hipótesis bioquímica, la neural y la autoinmune; esta última es la más popular. Las diferentes teorías pueden contribuir a explicar la pérdida de los melanocitos, apoyando una etiología multifactorial, lo que se conoce como la teoría de convergencia. El diagnóstico es clínico y puede ayudar la lámpara de Wood. Existe una gran cantidad de tratamientos disponibles en nuestro medio, con ventajas y desventajas, pero ninguno de ellos es 100% efectivo en todos los pacientes

Palabras clave: 
Vitiligo, trastornos de la pigmentación, hipopigmentación.

Summary: 

Vitiligo is defined as an acquired, chronic, pigmentary disorder characterized by white macules that usually increase in size over time. These correspond to an epidermal melanocyte loss of function, and in some cases, to those in the hair follicle. The worldwide prevalence is of 0.5 to 2%, affecting all races and men and women equally. Multiple theories that try to explain the pathogenesis of the disease have been proposed, among them, biochemical, neural and autoimmune hypothesis, the latter being the most popular. The different theories may converge to contribute to melanocyte loss, supporting a multifactorial etiology referred to as the convergence theory. The diagnosis is clinical and may be aided by the use of Wood`s lamp. We have a great quantity of treatments available that bear advantages and disadvantages, but none with 100% effectiveness in all patients.

Key words: 
Vitiligo, pigmentation disorders, hypopigmentation.
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