Técnicas para toma de biopsias ungulares

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Artículo de revisión
Rev Asoc Colomb Dermatol. 2015; 23: 1 (Enero-Marzo), 49-60

Técnicas para toma de biopsias ungulares

Nail biopsy techniques
Autor(es): 
Alvaro Acosta
catammm@yahoo.com
Coordinador Dermatología, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Profesor Asociado Universidad Nacional de Colombia.
Marian Rolón
Dermatóloga, Patóloga Oncóloga, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá.
Catalina Muñoz
Fellow Cirugía Plástica Oncológica, Universidad Militar - Instituto Nacional de Cancerología.
Resumen: 

La biopsia de uña constituye una herramienta invaluable para el diagnóstico de diversas enfermedades que afectan la unidad ungular; sin embargo, es infrecuente su práctica por el desconocimiento de las técnicas, la falta de experiencia de los especialistas o el miedo a las secuelas. El éxito de este procedimiento depende de la identificación precisa del área ungular de donde se debe tomar la biopsia, de la selección apropiada del tipo de biopsia para cada caso, del dominio de la técnica quirúrgica para obtener muestras representativas y aptas para estudio, y de una cautelosa remisión al dermatopatólogo quien procesará y estudiará con detenimiento el espécimen. El fracaso de este procedimiento puede significar resultados catastróficos para los pacientes.

Objetivo.
Ilustrar la forma adecuada de tomar una biopsia ungular. En la práctica diaria, observamos que no se realiza apropiadamente, lo que retrasa el diagnóstico de condiciones tan críticas como el melanoma.

Palabras clave: 
enfermedades de la uña, biopsia, técnicas.

Summary: 

The nail biopsy is an invaluable tool for the diagnosis of different diseases that affect the nail unit, but its use is not frequent due to the ignorance of the techniques, the lack of experience by the specialists or the fear of its sequels or after-effects. The success of this procedure depends on the precise identification of the nail area that must be taken for the biopsy, the appropriate selection of the type of biopsy for each case, the accurate control of the surgical technique to obtain representative and adequate samples, and its cautious sending to the dermopathologist who will study the specimen. The failure of this procedure can mean a catastrophic outcome for the patients.

Objective:
To illustrate the adequate way to take a nail biopsy. In the daily practice we see that it is not being done appropriately, delaying the diagnosis of critical conditions such as melanoma.

Key words: 
Nail diseases, biopsy, techniques.
PDF del articulo

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